Specific gravity tests for sample dilution. Urine specific gravity is a test that measures the concentration of particles in the urine.
When looking at the results of a urine test (urinalysis test), specifically the results of the specific gravity urine test a person could deduce certain information regarding the health of the test subject. Any such deductions should be confirmed by further tests. Using a urine test is a quick and inexpensive way to check the specific gravity in your urine, and is one of our test kit products that can be done in the privacy of your home.
Raised specific gravity: dehydration, diarrhea, excessive sweating, vomiting, water restriction, glucosuria, heart failure (related to decreased blood flow to the kidneys), renal aterial stenosis, adrenal insufficiency, nephrosis, congestive cardiac-failure, liver disease
Constant specific gravity: chronic renal disorder
A rapid, one step screening test for the simultaneous detection of Creatinine, Nitrite, Glutaraldehyde, pH, Specific Gravity, and Oxidants/Pyridinium Chlorochromate (PCC) in human urine.
For forensic use only.
The One Step S.V.T. is a semi-quantitative, color comparison screen for the detection of creatinine, nitrite, glutaraldehyde, pH, specific gravity, and oxidants / pyridinium chlorochromate (PCC) in human urine.
This test provides a preliminary screen only. A more specific alternate chemical method must be used in order to obtain a confirmed analytical result. Abnormal results should be sent to a laboratory for confirmation.
Urine Specimen Gravity Test
#DUC-111 - One Step Specimen Validity Test (SVT) (25 tests per bottle).
Urine Adulteration Test Strips provide rapid, semi-quantitative detection of 7 parameters (Creatinine, Nitrite, Glutaraldehyde, pH, Specific Gravity, Oxidants / pyridinium chlorochromate (PCC) in human urine.
Each of the plastic strips contains six (6) chemically treated reagent pads. One (1) minute following the activation of the reagent pads by the urine sample, the colors that appear on the pads can be compared with the printed color chart on the canister. The color comparison provides a semi-quantitative screen for creatinine, nitrite, glutaraldehyde, pH, specific gravity, and oxidants / pyridinium chlorochromate (PCC) in human urine which can help assess the integrity of the urine sample.
Adulteration is the tampering of a urine specimen with the intention of altering the test results. The use of adulterants can cause false negative results in drug tests by either interfering with the screening test and/ or destroying the drugs present in the urine. Dilution may also be employed in an attempt to produce false negative drug test results.
One of the best ways to test for adulteration or dilution is to determine certain urinary characteristics such as creatinine, pH, and specific gravity and to detect the presence of glutaraldehyde, nitrite and oxidants /pyridinium chlorochromate (PCC) in urine.
Creatinine is a waste product of creatine; an amino-acid contained in muscle tissue and found in urine. A person may attempt to foil a test by drinking excessive amounts of water or diuretics such as herbal teas to “flush” the system. Creatinine and specific gravity are two ways to check for dilution and flushing, which are the most common mechanisms used in an attempt to circumvent drug testing. Low creatinine and specific gravity levels may indicate dilute urine. The absence of creatinine (<5mg/dl) is indicative of a specimen not consistent with human urine.
Specific gravity tests for sample dilution. The normal range is from 1.003 to 1.030. Values outside this range may be the result of specimen dilution or adulteration.
Nitrite tests for commonly used commercial adulterants such as Klear or Whizzies. They work by oxidizing the major cannabinoid metabolite THC-COOH. Normal urine should contain no trace of nitrite. Positive results generally indicate the presence of an adulterant.
Glutaraldehyde tests for the presence of an aldehyde. Adulterants such as UrinAid and Clear Choice contain glutaraldehyde which may cause false negative screening results by disrupting the enzyme used in some immunoassay tests.³ Glutaraldehyde is not normally found in urine; therefore, detection of glutaraldehyde in a urine specimen is generally an indicator of adulteration.
pH tests for the presence of acidic or alkaline adulterants in urine. Normal pH levels should be in the range of 4.0 to 9.0. Values outside of this range may indicate the sample has been altered.
Oxidants/PCC (Pyridinium Chlorochromate) tests for the presence of oxidizing agents such as bleach and hydrogen peroxide. Pyridinium chlorochromate (sold under the brand name UrineLuck) is a commonly used adulterant. Normal human urine should not contain oxidants or PCC.
The test is based on the color derived from the chemical reaction between the chemical reagent on each test pad and the urine sample.
|Adulteration Pad||Reactive indicator||Buffers and non-reactive ingredients|
|Oxidants / PCC||0.36%||99.64%|
For forensic use only. Do not use after the expiration date.
The adulteration strips should remain in the sealed canister until use.
All specimens should be considered potentially hazardous and handled in the same manner as an infectious agent.
The used test strip should be discarded according to federal, state and local regulations.
STORAGE AND STABILITY
Store as packaged in the sealed canister at 15-30°C. The test strips must remain sealed in the canister until use. DO NOT FREEZE. Do not use beyond the expiration date. Avoid direct exposure to sunlight.
SPECIMEN COLLECTION AND PREPARATION
The urine specimen must be collected in a clean and dry container. Test urine as soon as possible after collection.
For best results, test specimens immediately following collection. Storage of urine specimens should not exceed 2 hours at room temperature or 4 hours refrigerated (2-8°C) prior to testing.
Each canister contains 25 S.V.T. Strips
Materials Required But Not Provided
DIRECTIONS FOR USE
Allow the adulteration strip to equilibrate to room temperature (15-30 C) prior to testing.
Remove the strip(s) from the canister and recap tightly.
Dip test strip into the urine specimen and remove immediately.
Blot the test gently on its side to remove excess urine. NOTE: It is important to blot the test strip for consistent results.
Read results in one (1) minute by comparing each pad with the color chart printed on the canister. Do not interpret test results after 4 minutes.
If the test indicates adulteration, refer to your Drug Free Policy for guidelines on handling adulterated specimens.
INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS
(Please refer to the illustration above)
Semi Quantitative results are obtained by visually comparing the reacted color blocks on the strip to the printed color blocks on the canister. No instrumentation is required.
Control standards are not supplied with this kit. However, it is recommended that positive and negative specimens or controls be tested as good laboratory practice to confirm the test procedure and to verify proper test performance.
The adulteration tests included with this product are meant to aid in the determination of abnormal specimens. While comprehensive, these tests are not meant to be an “all-inclusive” representation of possible adulterants.
Creatinine: Normal creatinine levels are between 20 and 350 mg/dL. Under rare conditions, certain kidney diseases may show dilute urine.
Nitrite: Nitrite is not a normal component of human urine. However, nitrite found in urine may indicate urinary tract infections or bacterial infections. Nitrite levels of > 20 mg/dL may produce false positive glutaraldehyde results.
Glutaraldehyde: Is not normally found in urine. However certain metabolic abnormalities such as ketoacidosis (fasting, uncontrolled diabetes or high-protein diets) may interfere with the test results.
Specific Gravity: Elevated levels of protein in urine may cause abnormally high specific gravity values.
Oxidants/PCC: Normal human urine should not contain oxidants or PCC. The presence of high levels of antioxidants in the specimen, such as ascorbic acid, may result in false negative results for the oxidants/PCC pad.
BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SUGGESTED READING
Tietz NW. Textbook of Clinical Chemistry. W.B. Saunders Company. 1986, 1734.
Tsai, S.C. et.al., J. Anal. Toxicol. 1998; 22 (6): 474
Cody, J.T., “Specimen Adulteration in drug urinalysis. Forsenic Sci. Rev., 1990, 2:63.
Mikkelsen, S.L. et.al., Clin. Chem. 1988; 34: 648
Hardman J, Limbird LE (Eds). Goodman & Gilman’s The
Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 10th Ed., McGraw-Hill Publishing. 2001, 1010.
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